Name of Assignment: Situation Analysis for Bhutan in the context of LIFE-AR
Client: International Institute of Environment and Development, London, United Kingdom
LDCs are at the forefront of climate-induced crises and disasters despite contributing the least to the problem. The compounding effects of existential climate change impacts are further exacerbated by the lack of resources and capacity to address the challenges. Often times, the available resources do not reach the community level where the realities of climate change are faced on a daily basis. Furthermore, studies have shown that the resources to fund the adaptation actions are unpredictable and insufficient which threatens the sustainability of the climate actions on the ground. Notwithstanding the challenges, the LDCs have come forward and set the most ambitious target to deliver climate-resilient development pathways by 2030 and net-zero emissions by 2050.
The primary objective of the LDC Initiative for Effective Adaptation and Resilience (LIFE-AR) is to support a shift away from business-as-usual practice to a more effective, more ambitious climate response, ensuring support to the most vulnerable countries and communities, without leaving anyone behind. LIFE-AR is an LDC-led, LDC-owned initiative, which serves as one of the primary vehicles for delivering the LDC Vision for a climate-resilient future.
Bhutan is highly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change due to its fragile ecosystem, limited resources, and lack of capabilities to deal with the impacts. An ICIMOD (2016) study suggested a two-degree rise in global temperature could have devastating impacts such as glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and landslides, food insecurity, increased disease, including malaria in the southern lowlands of Bhutan, livelihood stresses and destruction, water scarcity, population migration and cultural conflicts to name a few.
Bhutan is one of the six front-runner countries in leading the operationalization of the LIFE-AR. The MoU was signed between the LDC Group Chair, Bhutan, and the IIED (LIFE-AR interim Secretariat) which sets the principles that underpin the implementation of the LIFE-AR.
To operationalize the LIFE-AR, the front-runner countries need to develop a Program of Work that will set out how each country will take the LDC vision forward through the delivery of the LDC Offer by building on the institutions, systems, and capabilities of the respective countries. To this end, the current study aims to understand the existing policies, strategies, frameworks, systems, and institutions, and analyze the effectiveness of these mechanisms across government to deliver the LDC Offer. The study will also serve as a baseline for subsequent monitoring, evaluation, and learning for the initiative. This report supplements the earlier study that was commissioned to review the country’s financial mechanism to deliver LIFE-AR funds.
The report is essentially divided into six main parts i.e. planning, finance, coordination, capabilities, and governance of climate change including a detail analysis of legal and policy landscape governing climate change that are currently in force. The report has also assessed the weakness and strengths of the existing system/mechanism and also identified opportunities and threats to take forward the delivery of LDC Offer through the LIFE-AR mechanism. Based on these analysis, each chapter concludes with a set of recommendations in order to deliver the principles of LIFE-AR and the LDC Offer in the context of Bhutan.
Letter of Recommendation from International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London, UK
Name of assignment or project: Mineral Water project in Eastern Bhutan
|Name of assignment or project: Pre-Feasibility study & Liaoning Works for Fused Alumina and Fused Dolomite plant in Bhutan as FDI venture
Client: OCL India Ltd
Main project features: Exploring feasibility of setting up Fused Alumina and Fused Dolomite plant in BhutanDesk research to identify potential locationReview government rule and regulation for establishing FDI in BhutanIdentification of relevant stakeholders in key industries and government agenciesPreparation of Feasibility study Preparation of market study, business plan and recommend way forward
|Name of assignment or project: Prefeasibility & DPR study for Caustic Soda
Client: NCL Industries Limited
Main project features: Exploring feasibility of setting up Caustic Soda plant in BhutanReview government rule and regulation for establishing FDI in BhutanDesktop study & Preliminary study Preparation of prefeasibility study & Undertaking DPR in association with International Consultants
|Name of assignment or project: Stakeholder consultation meeting at Grass Root level
Year: 2011 – 2016
Location: Samtse, Gomtu, Nganglam
Client: Druk Holding & Investment
Main project features Stakeholder Consultation & Obtaining public clearances at the local and district level for establishment of manufacturing industries (NCL Bhutan Limited, OCL Bhutan Limited, Dungsum Polymer Limited)Positions held: Associate DirectorActivities performed:Public consultation meetingPresentation of the business proposal, highlighting environment impact, mitigation measures and strategics along with the support and development the project will undertake for the benefit of the local community
|Name of assignment or project: Waste to Energy Project (10 TPD) for Thimphu Thomdre
Client: Thimphu Thomdre & DHI
Main project features: Promoting Sustainability (waste to energy project)Assessed the 10 Tonne per day (TPD) project which recovers energy from plastic waste and reduces plastic waste to Memelakha landfill in Thimphu by converting post consumer waste plastic to hydrocarbon Based on the study, a grant of Nu. 40 million from DHI owned companies was given to Thimphu Thomdre and the project was to be implemented as a PPP between Thimphu Thomdre and MK Aromatics a company based in Bangalore, India
|Name of assignment or project: Business Plan for setting up glulam plant in Paro
Client: Natural Resource Development Corporation Limited (NRDCL)
Main project features: Reducing timber consumption at the Royal Academy, Pangbisa
Activities performed: As there was a lot of wastage of timber due to off cuts being unusable during construction and with concern for preserving the watershed in the locality, DHI initiated the glulam study for setting up glulam projectWith the glue laminated timber made by sticking and laminating different size timber that are not usable due to the small size, the technology and machinery imported from Europe would make the project environment friendly Based on the study and preparation of Business plan, DHI provided NRDCL with a budget of Nu. 15 million as a grant to undertake the pilot project
|Name of assignment or project: Assessment of Impact of Hydro-Power Projects in Bhutan
Location: Thimphu, Phuntsholing
Client: Gross National Happiness Commission
Main project features: Identification on impact of hydropower development & recommending interventions to protect affected local communities
Activities performed: Assigned as Task force member from DHI for undertaking strategic assessment for the ongoing hydropower projects in Bhutan to assess the impacts of implementation of the projects looking at the perceived or foreseen impacts as well as likely unforeseen and emerging issues and challenges.Based on the findings, recommendations would be incorporated in the 11th Five Year Plans formulation and policy decision.The study also focused on the impact of hydropower development on gender sensitive evaluation and analysis in terms of employment opportunities for women and youth who fall within the premise of the projects and are affected by it, and recommended specific intervention to ensure inclusivity of benefits to them while at the same time identifying risk and recommending interventions to protect them.
|Name of assignment or project: Revision of the National Environment Strategy (NES)
Client: National Environment Commission Secretariat
Main project features: Stakeholder Consultation in development of NES
Activities performed: Assigned as Task force member from DHI to assist in assessing the new environmental challenges and other emerging threats to environment sustainability Providing inputs in terms of economic challenges faced by business and industries and proposing recommendations
|Name of assignment or project: Life Cycle Analysis Study for Thimphu (Sustainable City)
Client: Green Economic Institute (GEI), Oxford University
Main project features: Situation Analysis study for energy, water, waste & sewage of Thimphu city and recommend solutions to make the city sustainable
Activities performed: Identifying inflow demand for water, energy and outflow of waste, sewage discharge from the City of Thimphu and recommending solution to make the city sustainable by identifying ways to reduce energy demands, improvise water efficient utilization (dual flush toilets etc), recycling methods etc.
|Name of assignment or project: Development of Business plan for use of Biofuels in Bhutan
Client: Druk Holding & Investments
Main project features: Biofuel project Proposal for Bhutan Positions held: Senior AnalystActivities performed: Desk research to identify areas of opportunity and capitalize financially on Bhutan carbon neutral achievements Identify local materials that have the potential to be used in a mix with petroleum (i.e. Biodiesel blend of B20 etc) Preparation of Project Idea Note (PIN) UNFCCC
|Name of assignment or project: Pre-Feasibility Study- Potential for setting up International Consultancy Service Firm in Bhutan (as a Joint Venture between DHI, Bhutan and NORPLAN, Norway)
Location: Thimphu Client: Druk Holding & Investments & NORPLAN AS (on behalf of Multiconsult AS)
Main project features: Study to estimate the size of the environmental market in Bhutan and to provide an overview of opportunity for Norplan and DHI to establish a consultancy unit Positions held: Senior AnalystActivities performed: Desk research to identify areas and current size of the environmental market Identification of stakeholders in key industries and government agencies and engagement through telephonic and face to face interviewAssess the scope of consultancy service in the environmental sector which would include Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) services, environmental audits, assistance with environmental management systems and training, life cycle assessment, environmental and social impact assessment, advice on environmental regulations and environmental institution building In addition to assess scope for providing financial and economic viability analysis, assistance with project financing, project formulation, business plan, etc. The objective is to focus on the study on projects with multidisciplinary service requirementPreparation of market study, business plan and recommend way forward
|Name of assignment or project: Assessing impact of Climate Change in Bhutan
Client: National Environment Commission Secretariat
Main project features: Assessing impact of climate change for initiating mitigation measures
Activities performed: Assigned as core team member to undertake the modelling to assess the Impact of Climate Change in BhutanClimate change modelling was done using “PRECIS Regional Dynamic Downscaling software” and the findings were shared with relevant shareholders to initiate climate change adaption program and projects.
|Name of assignment or project: Impact of reforestation on salinity with climate change in the Murray Darling Basin, Australia
Location: MelbourneClient: University of Melbourne
Main project features: Assessing impact of climate change on water availabilityPositions held: Research ScholarActivities performed: Identifying of problem which as that with the climate change, the water availability in the Murray Darling Basin was getting affectedUsing HADGEM1 General Circulation Model (GCM) modelling software to predict temperature change and precipitation and then using SIMHYD, a rain runoff modelling software that could study the impact of climate change on runoff which showed increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation relating to decrease in runoffThe various SIMHYD modelling also showed increase in reforestation within four area within the catchment results in decrease in runoff, which would mean that the irrigation farmers have area of opportunity to mitigate adverse impacts
|Name of assignment or project: Project Proposal for Rural Water Supply & Sanitation (RWSS) as per EU funding guidelines
Client: Community of Ilahita, PNG
Main project features: Multi-criteria evaluation to identify best suited design solutionsPositions held: Consultant Activities performed: Identifying problem faced by community which was the high incidents of malaria at 60% and with 20% of population experiencing diarrhea yearly, which was attributed to lack of water for sanitation purposes The project objective was to decrease number of water borne disease cases while addressing the nutrient cycle to improve the yield of the cropsDetailed analyses of number of different water supply and sanitation systems were evaluated against the objectivesWith three compatible solutions identified, a multi-criteria evaluation was done to identify the best suited solutionBased on the identified solution (rainwater harvesting system and double vault compost toilet system), a detailed design was done which would guarantee desirable objectivesThe detailed proposal and project design identified specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and realistic time bound (SMART) indicators in the project planning matrix along with the development project bar chart clearly documenting the activity the be undertaken and the duration of each activity
|Name of assignment or project: Establishment of Pet Bottle Crushing Plant in Paro District
Year: 2010 – 2011
Client: District Administration, Paro
Main project features: Stakeholder Consultation, Fund Raising, Procurement & Establishment of Pet Bottle Crushing Plant in Paro DistrictPositions held: District Environment OfficerActivities performed:Public consultation meetingAwareness programsRaised funds from local businesses (main targets were hotel business as the cleanliness of the environment had good aesthetic appeal to the tourist)Procurement of plant & machinerySetting up and inauguration of the facility The success was attributed to involvement and funding support by the community, with the District Administration achieving the goal to reduce waste to land fill, while at the same time promoting environmental sustainability by sending the crushed plastics for recycled
|Name of assignment or project: Proposal & Project Planning Matrix for “Efficient Waste Management in the District of Paro”
Client: District Administration, Paro
Main project features: Conducting Situation Analysis & recommending way forward to address waste problems in Paro District
Activities performed:Stakeholder consultation meeting between local government, municipality & communityCarrying out stakeholder analysis, problem analysis, objective analysis and strategy analysisUsing the logical framework analysis (LFA) to identify inputs and activities to arrive at desirable outputs that would achieve the immediate and final development objectivesOne of the initiatives of the exercise was that we were able to subsequently raise funds at the grass root level for procurement of pet bottle crushing machine to manage and recycle pet and plastic bottles, thereby reducing waste in the District
|Name of assignment or project: Assessment of EIA / project proposals & issuance of Environment ClearanceYear: 2007 Location: ThimphuClient: National Environment Commission Secretariat Main project features: Assess Project Proposals & Validate to ensure compliance as per Environment Assessment Act 2000 & respective regulations Positions held: Deputy Chief Environment OfficerActivities performed: Review of project proposalVerify public consultation meetings are conducted, duly verified by local government officialsAssess impact of industries and business and validate compliance to ensure impacts are mitigated and discharge within permissible limitsIssuing of Environment Clearances with terms and condition for compliance|
|Name of assignment or project: Institutionalizing use of non-destructive testing methods by the Royal Audit Authority
Main project features: Procurement & Training of Auditors in the use of non-destructive testing equipment
Activities performed: Stakeholder consultative meetings with government & private entities with regard to acceptability of non-destructive equipment for technical auditing Preparation of proposal for funding Identifying & procurement of non-destructive testing equipmentDevelopment of training manual Resource official in training auditors in the use of the equipmentThe outcome was that quality of the constructions works executed could be assessed upon completion of the project
|Name of assignment or project: Technical and Environmental Audit of Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation (BTFEC)
Client: Royal Audit AuthorityMain project features: Review and evaluation of procedure for identifying areas of focus, grants release and monitoring mechanism
Activities performed: Audit included reviewing BTFEC programs, funding objectives, assessing funding criteria, project cycle (which includes publicizing grant requirements and cycles, development and work plans, log-framework indicators and means of verification), their monitoring and evaluation system, and reviewing their investment plans and ensuring BTFEC fulfils their objective to increase their principal and maximizing investment returns to ensure funds for grant funding of activities and projectsThe projects implemented by programs focused as follows: integrated water resource management 4%, climate change 7%, education awareness 13%, rural communities 15%, broad environment 16%, economic development 18%. However it was observed that two and three projects of integrated water resource management and climate change constituted 15% of the total budget outlay. Base on the review of programs, areas where monitoring and evaluation were lacking were identified and recommendation made to ensure remedial measures and compliance.
|Name of assignment or project: Environmental Audits
Year: 2002 – 2006
Location: Thimphu Client: Royal Audit Authority
Main project features: Assessing Life Cycle Analysis of projects & recommending mitigation & sustainable approaches
Activities performed: Environmental Audits of National Resource Corporation Limited (NRDCL) programs, which focused on the evaluation of plans and determined whether timber harvesting operations conforms to sustainable harvesting and formulated specific recommendation to initiate appropriate interventions towards effective management of forest resourceEnvironmental Audits of industries in Thimphu, Pasakha, Gomtu had identified cases of non-compliance to environmental norms, which was subsequently reported to the concerned agencies including the Ministry of Economic Affairs and National Environment Commission Secretariat Environmental Audit of municipal waste disposal site at Memelakha in Thimphu and made series of recommendations that are desirable for efficient and effective waste management.